Inositol is a nutrient similar to glucose that is synthesized in the kidneys and present in the highest concentrations in the brain and heart. It acts as a second messenger to various hormones such as insulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone. It also controls fat and sugar metabolism, nervous system cellular functions, and gene expression. Supplementation in pregnant women demonstrated improved insulin resistance in those with gestational diabetes, lower incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in those with folate resistant NTDs, and improve fertility in women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS).

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